Samantha Marie Marquez
Grade: 10, Maggie L. Walker Governor’s School
Samantha Marquez has designed and fabricated 3D organized cell structures, called Celloidosomes®. By definition, the Celloidosome® is a “living capsule” with a biomembrane shell (tissue/biofilm) and a core that acts as a container/reservoir. Novel microfluidic protocols were used as platforms to engineer multiple-emulsion templates and direct the cell assembly onto liq-liq, liq-gas, or liq-gel interfaces. This new paradigm in cell architecture enables the design and engineering of biological structures based on a “bottom-up strategy”. These systems are ideal models for Bio-microreactors, Artificial Micro-Glands, and Tissue Engineering. Evidence was provided for the unique functionality of the Celloidosome® structure with key examples: 1) Celloidosomes® as tissue building blocks (NIH-3T3 fibroblasts) without necrosis during tissue formation, in addition to a proof of concept demonstrating a novel artificial microgland (HepG2) @ NIH 3T3 Celloidosome®, and 2) using chemotaxis and electrostatic driving forces, Bacteria and Yeast Celloidosomes® were bioengineered (3D biofilm microbag) with applications in water treatment, Biosensing, Bioremediation, Bioconversion, and selective extraction of radioactive heavy metals. For the first time, evidence is shown of two-cell, two-layer Celloidosome®: a unique symbiotic cooperation between algae and bacteria to create a hybrid-Celloiodosome®.